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Andrew Patterson

The solar minimum is a period in which there is lower solar activity in the 11 cycles of the sun. During this time, sunspots and solar flares diminish for a 12-month period. Solar flares are not to be correlated with climate change. However, in June there were readings from on top of the Greenland Ice Cap at 7,000 feet above sea level that were 13.5 C lower than the average for June, while in June, July, and beginning of August, the weather temperatures are more like those of of Canada, not like the Dog Days of late summer of my childhood where I sunburned so easily.

The readings on top of the Greenland Ice Cap at 7,000 feet above sea level were 13.5 C lower than normal. This does not mean global warming is wrong or right. It is a sign of the solar minimum as are the Antarctic Ice Cap winter readings. Melbourne, Australia, on the south coast of Australia and central Australia are having a colder than normal winter but the rest of Australia is warmer and drier.

The Earth’s axis is currently tilted at 23.26 degrees from vertical but varies between 22.5 and 24.1 degrees much like the planet Mars is tilted at 25 degrees from vertical so it has seasons like Earth. The tilt reflects in the latitude of the Arctic Circle at 23.26 minus 90 degrees or latitude. It is reflected in the Tropic of Cancer (June astrological sign) 223.26 degrees above the equator and 22.3 south of the equator called Capricorn (September astrological sign). These correspond to the predominant prevailing winds, so the United States is in the predominately temperate zone between the Arctic and Cancer latitudes and westerly winds, while the Arctic has predominantly Nnortheasterly winds. That hit the center part of the United States in the winter of 1977-78 when temperatures dropped to -64 F. chill factor with high winds that cause snow drifts, and motor oil turned into a consistency grease that kept snowplows in the garage.

On the day I tried getting to town, my car piled up on a snow drift and I had to walk back to my house almost a mile away. Frozen cheeks and I went to bed, while one woman had her car stalled four miles east of Sullivan and died in the snow walking back to Sullivan. A Mattoon woman had her car stalled near Coles Station and managed to get to a house in Mattoon and spent three months in the hospital.

The cause of the strong winds and extreme cold was the hotspot in the Japanese Current that crosses the Pacific to San Francisco where the evaporation by the sun causes salinity in top layer of the current, and this then sinks coming in contact with fresh water and sinks with cooler water coming to the surface.

The jet stream that precedes a cold front hit this warm spot of the Japanese Current and shot north into Alaska and the northeasterly winds over the Greenland Ice cap plunged the intense cold down into Central Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio.

Snow fell for the first recorded time in the mountains of Jamaica which is south of tropical Cuba. Fidel wasn’t sharing weather reports with the US so don’t know the exact effect this cold was having on Cuba.

Now the melting water from Greenland affects the Gulf Stream that warms Europe in a like manner of the Japanese Current that affects the West Coast. There the cooler waters of the south current make Southern California dry, and cooler waters going north to Oregon, Washington (state), and British Columbia bring rain for the coastal areas to the mountains and the waters are teeming with fish and salmon. Dry spells do occur and this year’s dry spell for Portland was a record 51 days.

Back to the melting snows of the Greenland Ice Cap, the saline water of the Gulf Stream sinks in such a huge amount, it pulls the Gulf Stream to warm Iceland (land of volcanoes, geysers, and hot springs to warm the houses of 350,000 Icelandic population, a nation so well endowed with brainy people they kicked out the government that allowed the bankers to mortgage everyone to to the hilt in Iceland).

But going back to the Greenland effect of the heavily saline Gulf stream, the salt water sinks to the bottom which is frigid and flows southward to the Antarctic. As fish sink downward to this current, they are caught up and when the current hits the rise of the ocean floor at Antarctica the creatures of the Antarctic sea have a feast on natural refrigerated sea life.

With the approach of the Monday eclipse of the sun, it will cross Carbondale and here northward to the Dakotas. Will the alignment of the sun and moon together, will it affect the New Madrid fault or Yellowstone volcano that is being watched by the US Geological Service? As I explained to my students, the planet Mars has about the same pull of gravity as the person sitting three feet away from them. Gravity is well known but is the weakest force of all forces we know. So, no effect.

Weather observers are not making any predictions about weather this fall but there are some who are warning that the fall will be wet and beans and corn harvested will need more time in grain driers as a result. That means more gas for the driers and higher costs for the farmer. So higher food costs and higher fuel costs with petroleum exporters cutting back on production to get more profit.

And as a Russian nuclear analyst, Sergei Iskov, has recommended sending a nuclear bomb into Yellowstone Volcano to cover about half of the US with ash as the financial embargoes on Russia have affected the international currency transactions by removing MasterCard and Visa from Russia, he recommended it as the US is meddling too much in Russia’s internal affairs. The good news is that Mr. Putin isn’t giving Sergei’s advice any attention, but this writer views it as the end of the world as French scientists measured in 2015 the temperature of the liquid iron of the upper mantle of the Earth's core at 6,500 C, 1,000 C. hotter than the surface of the sun. It is kept in place by 2.2 million atmospheric pressures.

This writer, I look for dried weather and a good harvest, but taking the warning made by others is a good precaution.

Andrew Patterson was born on a dairy farm two miles south of Sullivan on Feb. 13, 1930. He has attended eight universities for a total of 10 years, lived in 10 countries for 28 years, traveled in 50, speaks and writes Spanish, reads French and German, has written seven encyclopedia articles, and numerous reports and studies for World Bank, Pan American Union, and Economic Development.

Descendant from 15 American Revolutionary ancestors (16th was Cherokee), history is his life's blood, as is telling the truth. He states, "The day I stop learning is the day I am dead,” and “The hardest thing in life has been to unlearn what has been taught to me as the truth.” He has learned there are many men who have stopped WW III from China, Russia, and other countries and it cost them their life. President John F. Kennedy was one of them.

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