To understand the 2016 coup attempt in Turkey one has to go back to the end of WW I and the defeat of Turkey. The British and French divided up the vast land of the Ottoman Empire. Anatolia was occupied by Russia and Greece until Mustafa Kemal Ataturk escaped from Istanbul by boat to a Black Seaport where he called up officers who served him WW I to mobilize an army. His Army forced the occupation nations out of the territory he was planning to make a Turkish Republic. The Allies were not enthusiastic to fight Ataturk who inflicted great casualties on the British at Gallipolis, the biggest battle of WW I. The Allies agreed to a conference.
Ataturk insisted the conference had to be in neutral Switzerland and he chose the city of Lausanne. To protect the Homeland of the Jews in Palestine that had been under control by the Ottomans for 400 years, the Allies suggested Ataturk make himself the "sultan." Ataturk refused, saying he liked his whiskey too much. The Allies insisted that a Turkish military be given the power to diminish the influence of Islam as well as block any attempt to recover Palestine or the Ottoman Empire.
Under the military, the economy of the New Turkish Republic fell into decay until Ali Adnan Eretaki Mendares became Prime Minister in May 1950. Adnan was of Crimean Tartar origin. He entered politics and in May 1950, became Prime Minister and wanted to develop Turkey. He needed finance and that came from German banks. The German banks agreed to accept Turkish lira at 3.5 to the US dollar and foreign companies flocked to Istanbul for jobs and Turkey boomed. The German banks became overloaded with lira and discounted it to 13 to 15 lira to a dollar.
Adnan Mendares got Turkey into NATO and even sent a battalion of Turkish troops to fight in Korea. He signed on to the Baghdad Pact with Iraq and Iran to keep Russia out of the oil rich Middle East and protect American and British oil interests in the Persian Gulf. It was only on paper with Baghdad Revolution, the Americans had to rush weapons to Iran.
When the Turkish military arrested Adnan Mendares on May 27, 1960, it accused him of trying to get closer relations with Arab states and changing the call to prayer from Turkish back to its original Arabic.
Evidence that Adnan was planning a wave of terrorism to remain in office was nonsense as he was very popular. World leaders including presidential candidate John F. Kennedy called for clemency but on May 31, 1961, the military of Turkey hung President Adnan Mendares.
When Tayyip Erdogan came to power in 2002, he wrested power from the military, making him popular. State Department and the Pentagon recognized his leadership abilities and gave support.
Turkey began to industrialize and Turks from the rural areas flocked to the cities. The economy expanded and roads were improved. Turkey’s cinema and television became more Turkish. Foreign films and TV programs were phased out. To make the currency more manageable, six zeros were dropped to create the new lira (YTL) on January 6, 2006.
Israel attacked Gaza to destroy their government and annex the rest of Gaza. Sympathy for Gazans grew and on May 31, 2010, the Gaza Freedom Flotilla of nine ships headed for Gaza with clothing, medical supplies and food. Israeli commandos dropped from helicopters onto the ships resulting in nine men killed. Forensic autopsy showed all were shot in the back.
In 2008, three young American Jews from Berkley, California, were jogging on the border of Iran-Iraq and arrested by Iranian border guards. One had been working in Damascus on Syrian relief and he was fluent in Arabic. It was from this area that ISIS started its push across northern Iraq and northern Syria that connected with the rebel movement the US State Department was arming to fight Bashar Assad while ISIS volunteers, weapons and money poured into Syria from Turkey.
American journalist Serena Shims, 29 and a mother of two, saw NGO trucks were used to carry ISIS volunteers into ISIS controlled areas of Syria. Her small car was hit by a cement truck and she arrived dead at the hospital.
Despite his lucrative contract to exploit Israel of gas, he has lent his support to Bashar Assad. Rothschild’s Total holds the other 10 percent. The CEO of Total was in Moscow to arrange for use of Total’s ships but he died in a plane crash on take-off from Moscow’s airport.
Not one to mince words, Vladimir Putin based some of his top aircraft in Syria to start operations against ISIS which included attacks on the Syrian rebels who were cooperating with ISIS. Russia destroyed nearly 2,000 oil tankers carrying the ISIS stolen Iraq and Syrian oil going through the Syrian border province with Turkey that lay on the coast of the Mediterranean that was closest to the Turkish port exporting ISIS stolen oil to Israel.
On Nov. 24, 2015, two Turkish F 16s destroyed the fired rocket into Syrian Air Space the Russian SU 24 that had wandered over a small piece of Turkish border for maybe 17 seconds. The Turkish pilots then fired rockets into Syrian airspace or crossed into Syrian air space to shoot down the Russian SU 24. The Russian pilots bailed out and one was shot to death by Turkish Syrian rebels, and a Russian rescue helicopter was destroyed when it came to rescue the other pilot.
On July 15, 2016, Erdogan was in Marmaris arranging to go into exile it is said, but the Marmaris police fought off the commandos dropped by helicopter and Erdogan was saved. CNN managed to get a call though to Istanbul and a flight arranged for Erdogan to return to Istanbul and phone calls had thousands in the streets heading for bridges now blocked by tanks all in the middle of the night. If I had a call like that I would go back to bed. But the coup was over; 191 civilians were killed and 90 military; 40,000 people were detained, 2,745 judges, 15,000 educational staff and 21,000 teachers at private schools were fired; 100,000 other people fired from their jobs almost immediately. Erdogen blamed his former friend, Gulen, but he had nothing to do with the attempted coup.
The leaders surrendered without a fight and Erdogan wanted mass executions. There were beatings, rape, on those arrested. NATO, Putin, and others advised him to not execute anyone. Erdogan wanted changes in the Constitution for more power and put it to a vote, believing he would be supported by 50 percent of Turks that voted for his and 30 percent of the other party would see 80 percent of Turks would support his changes. It didn’t happen. It was pretty much fifty-fifty.
It is a reality to assume the 1,000 to 6,000 of those military officers and top police are dead. As I dedicated my book, "Treachery" to Mehmet Savas Ozgan, I will have to change that to “In Commemoration of a great human being and the most ethical and moral policeman I have known.”